Global warming and the dependency on fossil fuels force the car industry and public administration to think about introducing alternative fuel vehicles. For this purpose, the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI developed a detailed simulation model for the market diffusion of alternative fuel vehicles: the ALADIN model. The acronym ALADIN stands for ALternative Automobiles Diffusion and INfrastructure. To date, the simulation comprises the market diffusion of passenger cars, heavy-duty vehicles and inland navigation in Germany and Europe complemented by early versions of a model for international navigation and aviation.

Simulation of market diffusion for passenger cars in Germany until 2050 in three zero-emission scenarios 
[Krail et al. 2021]